Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Free Response: LEQ for Early Modern World

2017 LEQ: Cont. & Change in Labor Migration 1450-1750

2018 LEQ: Columbian Exchange IMPACT on The Americas 1450-1750
Questions for the LEQ Flip - Early Modern World

UNIT 4: Transoceanic Interconnections - Of course, use the notes from unit 4 to assist you.



Labor Systems Chart


Demand for Labor Intensified 1450-1750Labor Systems became more entrenched & complex.

Spanish took the existing Inca mit'a system of committed labor to the state & made it a more entrenched system called Encomienda - a grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America conferring the right to demand tribute & forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area. 

The Hacienda System

Form of large landed estate systems which originated in Spanish America during the colonial period, & acted as a traditional institution of rural life. Haciendas were originally profit-making & the practice of exploiting indigenous peoples for forced labor on such lands for reaping economic benefits became common. They were often agricultural, but could also include mines. 

Massive global demand for raw materials (Mercantilism) & finished products 
Traditional peasant agriculture increased & changed in nature
Plantations expanded
Atlantic slave trade developed

Slave trade:
Also referred to as chattel slavery - people are treated as the chattel (personal property) of the owner & are bought & sold as commodities. Typically, under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth. Slaves were mostly taken to Brazil & the Caribbean for work on sugarcane plantations & in some mines. This type of work was horrible, most often died. Those who could not work any longer may be set free. In North America, slaves were not set free & worked in a variety of ways, mostly farming duties for cash crops. 15 million people were brought to the new world on slave ships & this was one of the most horrible times in world history. 

Indentured servants:

Were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to the new world &, once they arrived, food, clothing, & shelter. This mostly occurred in the American colonies in North America. 

Servants typically worked four to seven years in exchange for passage, room, board, lodging and freedom dues. While the life of an indentured servant was harsh and restrictive, it wasn't slavery. There were laws that protected some of their rights. But their life was not an easy one, and the punishments meted out to people who wronged were harsher than those for non-servants. An indentured servant's contract could be extended as punishment for breaking a law, such as running away, or in the case of female servants, becoming pregnant.

For those that survived the work and received their freedom package, many historians argue that they were better off than those new immigrants who came freely to the country. Their contract may have included at least 25 acres of land, a year's worth of corn, arms, a cow and new clothes. Some servants did rise to become part of the colonial elite, but for the majority of indentured servants that survived the treacherous journey by sea and the harsh conditions of life in the New World, satisfaction was a modest life as a freeman in a burgeoning colonial economy.