Early Modern Era
UNIT 4 Transoceanic Interconnections
STRAYER - Chapter 13 - The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century
STRAYER - Chapter 14 - Empires & Encounters
STRAYER - Chapter 15 - Global Commerce
Empires from 1450-1750 were very focused on the letter "S"
Silver, Soft Gold (furs), Sugar, Slaves, Silk, Spices, & Sapphires
DUEZ NOTES: 4-1 TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS & EXPLORATIONS
VIDEO: Heimler - Technological Innovations in Sea-Based Empires
Maritime technology that made the expansion of sea-based empires possible:
Astrolabe, magnetic compass, astrological charts, & maps of wind patterns
New trade ships were created.
Both ships used:
Lateen sail & smaller form factors > expanded trade in the age of exploration.
DUEZ NOTES: 4-2 MARITIME EMPIRES IN EUROPE/ASIA
Motivations & causes for sea-based exploration:
Gold, God, Glory
Mercantilism: States desired to gain more wealth in the form of gold & silver. Because Christianity was a missionary religion Europeans explored distant lands in order to make conversions. International glory: claiming distant lands & ruling over large empires. How did the following states built their sea-based empires: Portugal, Spain, England, France, & the Netherlands?
DUEZ NOTES: 4-3 - COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
VIDEO: Heimler's History: The Columbian Exchange
It’s hard to overestimate the great change that took place in the world as a result of the Columbian Exchange. Diseases devastated the populations of the Native Americans. But animals like horses transformed their lives, arguably for the better. Foods were exchanged as well like maize, manioc, & potatoes -> population explosions.
Dark side to the Columbian Exchange as well: Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.
Success of agriculture in the New World, especially sugarcane & tobacco, led to an increased demand for Enslaved people to work the fields.
CRASH COURSE: COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
DUEZ NOTES: 4-4 - COMPARE AMERICA COLONIZATION
DUEZ NOTES 4-5 - WORLD COMMERCE - SILVER
2006 AP World History DBQ - Silver Trade
VIDEO: Heimler's History - Maritime Empires Established
Unit 4.4 of the AP World History curriculum.
Main theme: Establishment of sea-based (maritime) empires and the effects those empires had on the world.
Influence these empires had on Africa & Asia
Rivalries that spurred imperial expansion
Labor systems - kept everything running
Different reactions to European influence:
Africa: Open to European influence
Japan: Closed itself off to European influence.
European rivalries spurred expansion on.
French vs. British -and- Spanish vs. Portuguese --- All vied for dominance.
Labor systems: Enabled such imperial expansion was largely coerced labor.
Americas: Spanish implemented the hacienda system, encomienda system, & Mita system (borrowed from the Incas).
Almost all American colonies eventually replaced native labor with chattel slavery.
DUEZ NOTES: 4-5 - THE MIDDLE PASSAGE
CRASH COURSE: ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
DUEZ NOTES: 4-6 - WORLD COMMERCE
Mercantilism -> joint-stock companies which financed exploration & influenced the Commercial Revolution in trade. Mercantilism dominated Europe. Rise of the Triangular Trade, & the establishment of trade monopolies.
Dealing with the political & cultural dynamics of empire building, we'll see that there were essentially 2 responses to European intrusion:
Syncretism: Amalgamation (combining) of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought.
CRASH COURSE: The Spanish Empire, Silver, & Runaway Inflation
Video: AMERICA BEFORE COLUMBUS
Demand for Labor Intensified 1450-1750
Labor Systems became more entrenched & complex
Massive global demand for raw materials (Mercantilism) & finished products
Traditional peasant agriculture increased & changed in nature
Atlantic slave trade developed